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Classification of exhaust gas treatment equipment

作者: 人气: Article Source: Author: Popularity: Issuing time: 2017-6-24 10:43:30
Classification of exhaust gas treatment equipment




Absorption equipment


The absorption method uses low-volatile or non-volatile solvents to absorb VOCs, and then uses the difference in physical properties of VOCs and absorbents to separate.
VOCs-containing gas enters the tower from the bottom of the absorption tower, and comes into countercurrent contact with the absorbent from the top of the tower during the rising process, and the purified gas is discharged from the top of the tower. After the absorbent that has absorbed VOCs passes through the heat exchanger, it enters the top of the stripper and is desorbed under conditions where the temperature is higher than the absorption temperature or the pressure is lower than the absorption pressure. The desorbed absorbent is condensed by a solvent condenser and returned to the absorption tower. The desorbed VOCs gas passes through the condenser and gas-liquid separator and leaves the stripping tower with relatively pure VOCs gas, and is recycled. This process is suitable for gas purification with higher VOCs concentration and lower temperature, and other processes need to be adjusted accordingly.


Adsorption equipment


When a fluid mixture is treated with a porous solid substance, a certain component or certain components in the fluid can be attracted to and concentrated on the surface. This phenomenon is called adsorption. When adsorbing and treating exhaust gas, the objects to be adsorbed are gaseous pollutants and gas-solid adsorption. The adsorbed gas component is called adsorbate, and the porous solid material is called adsorbent.
After the adsorbent is adsorbed on the solid surface, a part of the adsorbed adsorbent can be detached from the surface of the adsorbent. After the adsorption is carried out for a period of time, due to the concentration of surface adsorbents, the adsorption capacity is significantly reduced and the requirements for adsorption purification are required. At this time, certain measures need to be taken to desorb the adsorbed adsorbents on the adsorbent to facilitate Adsorption capacity, this process is called regeneration of adsorbent. Therefore, in the actual adsorption project, it is the cycle of adsorption-regeneration and adsorption that is used to remove pollutants in the exhaust gas and recover useful components in the exhaust gas.


Organic waste gas combustion and catalytic purification equipment


The combustion method is very effective in treating high concentrations of Voc and malodorous compounds. The principle is to burn these impurities with excess air. Most of them generate carbon dioxide and water vapor, which can be discharged into the atmosphere. However, when treating chlorine- and sulfur-containing organic compounds, the combustion produces HCl or SO2, and further treatment of the post-combustion gas is required.


Low-temperature plasma treatment equipment for industrial organic waste gas


Plasma is an ionized gas. Its English name is plasma, which was named by the American scientific muir in 1927 when studying the phenomenon of discharge in mercury vapor under low pressure. Plasma is composed of a large number of electrons, neutral atoms, excited atoms, photons and free radicals, but the charge number of electrons and positive ions must be electrically neutral, which is the meaning of "plasma". Plasma differs from solids, liquids, and gases in that it has many aspects of being conductive and electromagnetically affected, so it has been called the fourth state of matter. According to the state, temperature, and ion density, plasmas can generally be divided into high-temperature plasmas and low-temperature plasmas (steam inclusions and cold plasmas). The ionization degree of high-temperature plasma is close to 1, and the temperature of various particles is almost the same in thermodynamic equilibrium. It is mainly used in the research of controlled thermonuclear reactions. The low temperature plasma is non-equilibrium, and the temperature of various particles is not the same. The electron temperature (Te) ≥ the ion temperature (Ti) can reach above 104K, while the temperature of its ions and neutral particles can be as low as 300 ~ 500K. Generally, the gaseous electron-emitting body belongs to a low-temperature plasma.
As of 2013, research on the mechanism of low-temperature plasmas is believed to be the result of particle inelastic collisions. Low-temperature plasmas are rich in electrons, ions, free radicals, and excited-state molecules. High-energy electrons collide with gas molecules (atoms) to convert energy into the internal energy of ground-state molecules (atoms). A series of excitation, dissociation and ionization occur Passed straw is in an activated state. On the one hand, the molecular bonds of the gas are opened, and some single molecules and solid particles are generated; OH, H2O2. Such as free radicals and highly oxidizing O3, high-energy electrons play a decisive role in this process, and the thermal movement of ions has only side effects. Under normal pressure, the electron stratosphere in the highly non-equilibrium plasma generated by gas discharge is much higher than the gas temperature (about 100 ° C at room temperature). Various types of chemical reactions may occur in non-equilibrium plasma, which are mainly determined by the average energy of electrons, electron density, gas temperature, concentration of harmful gas molecules, and ≥ gas composition. This provides some reactions that require a large amount of activation energy, such as the removal of difficult-to-degrade pollutants in the atmosphere. In addition, it can also process volatile organic pollutants and sulfur-containing pollutants with low concentrations, high flow rates, and large air volumes.
A common method of generating plasma is gas discharge. The so-called gas discharge refers to the ionization of an electron from a gas atom or molecule through a mechanism. The gas medium formed is called ionized gas. If the ionized gas is generated and formed by an external electric field The phenomenon of conducting current is called gas discharge. According to the mechanism of discharge, the nature of the pressure source of the gas and the geometry of the electrode, the gas discharge plasma is mainly divided into the following forms: ① glow discharge; ③ dielectric barrier discharge; ④ radio frequency discharge; ⑤ microwave discharge. No matter which form of plasma is generated, high voltage discharge is required. Easy to ignite and cause danger. Due to the treatment of gaseous pollutants, it is generally required to be carried out under normal pressure.

5.Photocatalytic and biological purification equipment


Photocatalysis is a deep reaction technology at room temperature. Photocatalytic oxidation can completely oxidize organic pollutants in water, air and soil into non-toxic and harmless products at room temperature, while traditional high-temperature incineration technology requires extremely high temperatures to destroy the pollutants. Conventional catalysis and oxidation methods also require a high temperature of several hundred.
In theory, as long as the light energy absorbed by the semiconductor is not less than its band gap energy, it is sufficient to excite the generation of electrons and holes, and the semiconductor may be used as a photocatalyst. Common single compound photocatalysts are mostly metal oxides or sulfides, such as Ti0. , Zn0, ZnS, CdS and PbS. Each of these catalysts has outstanding advantages for specific reactions, and can be selected according to needs in specific research. For example, the band gap energy of CdS semiconductors is small, and it has a good matching performance with the near-ultraviolet band in the solar spectrum. However, it is prone to photocorrosion and has a limited service life. Relatively speaking, Ti02 has better comprehensive performance and is the most widely used and studied single compound photocatalyst.